2020, Vol. 5 Issue 2, Part DECEMBER
Evaluation of toxicity of Dichlorvos (Nuvan) to fresh water fish Anabas testudineus and possible modulation by crude aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata: A preliminary investigation
Author(s): Santosh Kumar Giri, Sanjib Gorain, Monoj Patra, Nimai Chandra Saha, Surjyo Jyoti Biswas
Abstract: Dichlorvos (DV) is widely used pesticide due to their low persistence in aquatic ecosystem but it affects the non-target organisms as well. In the present investigation aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata (AP) was tested for its possible modulatory changes in Anabas testudineus against dichlorvos induced toxicity by taking into consideration several biomarkers of toxicity viz. activity of enzymes in blood and liver (Alkaline phosphatase ALP, Acid phosphatase ACP and gama-glutamyl transferase, GGT) haematological variables at 3 exposure times i.e. 7,15 and 45 days. Fish were divided Group I: normal control without any treatment, Group II: Dichlorvos treatment at a dose of 0.39 ppm (µg L-1) which is 1/5th of LC50 value of 96 hr, Group III. Dichlorvos treatment at a dose of 0.39 ppm plus aqueous AP treatment (83.32 ppm which is 1/3rd of IC50 value), Group IV, Fish treated with only 83.32 ppm of AP (1/3rd of IC50 value). Analysis of the data reveals that treatment with AP extract reduced the activity of ACP, ALP and GGT at all the three exposure times namely 7, 15 and 45 days (p<0.001), similarly there was a significant reduction in creatinine, urea and blood glucose content in fish treated with Andrographis paniculata when compared to only dichlorvos treated group (p<0.05 through p<0.001). A similar trend was also observed when comparing the haematological profiles (p<0.001). On analysis of the leaves it was found to contain several phytoconstituents through UV-vis spectrophotometric, gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry and biochemical studies. Collectively the results suggest that treatment with aqueous Andrographis paniculata extracts could favorably modulate the toxicological response in fish induced by dichlorvos and therefore represent a promising alternative for sustainable aquaculture practices.